# Standing waves

This section focuses on waves in bounded mediums—in particular, standing waves in such systems as stretched strings, air columns, and stretched membranes. The principles discussed here are directly applicable to the operation of string and wind instruments.

When two identical waves move in opposite directions along a line, they form a standing wave—that is, a wave form that does not travel through space or along a string even though (or because) it is made up of two oppositely traveling waves. The resulting standing wave is sinusoidal, like its two component waves, and it oscillates at the same frequency. An easily visualized standing wave can be created by stretching a rubber band between two fixed points, displacing its centre slightly, and releasing it so that it vibrates back and forth between two extremes. In musical instruments, a standing wave can be generated by driving the oscillating medium (such as the reeds of a woodwind) at one end; the standing waves are then created not by two separate component waves but by the original wave and its reflections off the ends of the vibrating system.

## Fundamentals and harmonics

For a stretched string of a given mass per unit length (μ) and under a given tension (F), the speed (v) of a wave in the string is given by the following equation:

When a string of a given length (L) is plucked gently in the middle, a vibration is produced with a wavelength (λ) that is twice the length of the string:

The frequency (f1) of this vibration can then be obtained by the following adaptation of equation (2):

As the vibration that has the lowest frequency for that particular type and length of string under a specific tension, this frequency is known as the fundamental, or first harmonic.

Additional standing waves can be created in a stretched string; the three simplest are represented graphically in Figure 4. At the top is a representation of the fundamental, which is labeled n = 1. Because a string must be stretched by holding it in place at its ends, each end is fixed, and there can be no motion of the string at these points. The ends are called nodal points, or nodes, and labeled N. The shape of the string at the extreme positions in its oscillation is illustrated by curved solid and dashed lines, the two positions occurring at time intervals of one-half period. In the centre of the string is the point at which the string vibrates with its greatest amplitude; this is called an antinodal point, or antinode, and labeled A.

The next two vibrational modes of the string are also represented in Figure 4. For these vibrations the string is divided into equal segments called loops. Each loop is one-half wavelength long, and the wavelength is related to the length of the string by the following equation:

Here the integer n equals the number of loops in the standing wave. From equation (22) above, the frequencies of these vibrations (fn) can be deduced as:

or, in terms of the fundamental frequency f1,

Here n is called the harmonic number, because the sequence of frequencies existing as standing waves in the string are integral multiples, or harmonics, of the fundamental frequency.

In the middle representation of Figure 4, labeled n = 2 and called the second harmonic, the string vibrates in two sections, so that the string is one full wavelength long. Because the wavelength of the second harmonic is one-half that of the fundamental, its frequency is twice that of the fundamental. Similarly, the frequency of the third harmonic (labeled n = 3) is three times that of the fundamental.

Sound