Abbot, Late Latin and Greek Abbas, the superior of a monastic community that follows the Benedictine Rule (Benedictines, Cistercians, Camaldolese, Trappists) and of certain other orders (Premonstratensians, canons regular of the Lateran). The word derives from the Aramaic ab (“father”), or aba (“my father”), which in the Septuagint (the Greek translation of the Old Testament) and in New Testament Greek was written abbas. Early Christian Egyptian monks renowned for age and sanctity were called abbas by their disciples, but, when monasticism became more organized, superiors were called proestos (“he who rules”) in the East and the Latin equivalent, praepositus, in the West.
St. Benedict of Nursia (c. 480–c. 547) restored the word abbas in his rule, and to this early concept of spiritual fatherhood through teaching he added the concept of patria potestas, authority wielded by a father according to Roman law. Thus, the abbot has full authority to rule the monastery in both temporal and spiritual matters.
An abbot is elected by the chapter of the monastery in secret ballot. He must be at least 30 years old, of legitimate birth, professed at least 10 years, and an ordained priest. He is elected for life except in the English congregation, where he is elected for a term of 8–12 years. The election must be confirmed by the Holy See or by some other designated authority. The bishop of the diocese in which the monastery is situated confers the abbatial blessing, assisted by two abbots.
Chief among the privileges of an abbot are the rights to celebrate the liturgy according to pontifical rite, to give many blessings normally reserved to a bishop, and to use the pontifical insignia.
In Eastern monasticism, self-governing monasteries are ruled by several elder monks, whose leader is called abbot. See also abbess.
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history of Europe: Devotional life…houses were headed by an abbot or abbess (the mendicant orders had a slightly different organization) and administered by a chancellor and chamberlain. Provosts and deans usually supervised the property of each house.…
Western architecture: Romanesque…of the age were the abbots, though not to the exclusion of the bishops and magnates.…
Charlemagne: Court and administration…of immunity to bishops and abbots, which freed their properties from intervention by public authorities. This privilege, in effect, allowed its recipients or their agents to rule over those inhabiting their property as long as they enjoyed royal favour. The effectiveness of this governance system depended largely on the abilities…
Saint Benedict: Rule of St. BenedictThe abbot, elected for life by his monks, maintains supreme power and in all normal circumstances is accountable to no one. He should seek counsel of the seniors or of the whole body but is not bound by their advice. He is bound only by the…
AbbessAbbess, the title of a superior of certain communities of nuns following the Benedictine Rule, of convents of the Second Order of St. Francis (Poor Clares), and of certain communities of canonesses. The first historical record of the name is on a Roman inscription dated c. 514. To be elected, an…
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- Benedictine Rule
- Carolingian government
- ecclesiastical heraldry
- medieval architecture
- Roman Catholic religious communities